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Functional Programming In Java: How Functional ...


Here, the functional interface plays a major role. Wherever a single abstract method interface is expected, we can pass lambda expression very easily. Above code could be more simplified and improved as follows:

The java.util.function.Function interface is a key component of the Java 8 functional programming API. The java.util.function.Function is a functional interface in Java that takes input of type 'T' and produces an output of type 'R'.

In functional programming, functions are first-class citizens, meaning that they can be passed around as values, stored in variables or data structures, and used as arguments or return values of other functions.

The java.util.function.BiFunction is also a functional interface in Java that takes two inputs 'T' and 'U' and produces an output of type 'R'. In short, BiFunction takes 2 inputs and returns an output:

The apply() function is a method of functional interfaces, such as the function interface, that takes an argument of a specified type and returns a result of a specified type. It is the single abstract method of these interfaces, which is required for them to be used as functional interfaces.

The apply() function defines the behavior of the functional interface. When an instance of a functional interface is created, the apply() function is implemented to define what the functional interface does when it is called with an argument.

The Java util package contains two functional interfaces known as "Function" and "BiFunction". The Function interface takes a single input and produces an output, whereas the BiFunction interface takes two inputs and produces an output. Here is an illustration:

In this article, we covered the implementation of functional programming (FP) concepts in Java, such as treating functions as first-class citizens, composing them into pipelines, and utilizing currying to simplify complex functions.

From Java 8 onwards, many functional programming elements are introduced like lambda expression, functional interfaces in Java. These elements are to ease functional programming in Java which was originally a imperative and Object Oriented language.

Functional programming is a subset of Declarative programming paradigm. Functional programming technique makes our code more concise, readable and predictable. It is easy to test and maintain code developed through functional programming. Functional programming involves crucial concepts such as immutable states, referential transparency, method references, high-order and pure functions. It involves programming techniques such as functional composition, recursion, currying and functional interfaces.

Functional programming is a paradigm where the basic unit of computation is a function. Here functions are not the methods we write in programming. Methods are procedures where we write a sequence of instructions to tell the computer what to do. In functional programming, functions are treated like mathematical functions where we map inputs to outputs to produce a result. Eg. f(x)=3xf(x) = 3xf(x)=3x.

In functional programming, the software is developed around the evaluation of functions. The functions are isolated and independent, and they depend only on the arguments passed to them and do not alter the program's state like modifying a global variable.

A functional interface is an interface that contains exactly one abstract method. It is also called Single Abstract Method (SAM) Interfaces. It can have any number of default methods. In Java, an interface is annotated with @FunctionalInterface to make it a functional interface. @FunctionalInterface annotation ensures that the interface can't have more than one abstract method. Functional interfaces are meant to be used with lambdas.

Predicate is a functional interface that accepts exactly one input and can return a boolean output. It provides built-in methods like and(), or(), negate(), and isEqual() methods to compose multiple functions. The composed function can be executed u

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