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Amarinau Egrigorevs
Amarinau Egrigorevs

Aland Islands

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It is worth mentioning that 'avena' is Latin for 'oats'. This might have led Pliny the Elder to write of "some islands [...] the inhabitants [...] live on [...] oats" [20] and be an indication of their name at the time of writing: AD 77.

Members of the Neolithic Comb Ceramic culture started settling the archipelago some 7000 years ago, after the islands had begun to re-emerge from the sea after being pushed down by the weight of the continental ice of the latest ice-age. Two Neolithic cultures met on Åland: the Comb Ceramic culture and the later Pit-Comb Ware culture which spread from the west.[21]

In 1832, Russia started to fortify the islands, with the great fortress of Bomarsund. In 1854, as part of the campaign in the Baltic during the Crimean War against Russia, a combined British and French force of warships and marines captured and destroyed the fortress during the Åland War. The 1856 Treaty of Paris demilitarised the entire Åland archipelago.[13]

During the Finnish Civil War, in 1918, Swedish troops intervened as a peacekeeping force between the Russian troops stationed on the islands and "White" and "Red" Finnish troops who came from Finland over the frozen sea. Within weeks, the Swedish troops gave way to German troops who occupied Åland at the request of the "White" (conservative) Senate of Finland.

Finland, however, declined to cede the islands and instead offered the islanders an autonomous status. Nevertheless, the residents did not approve the offer, and in 1921 the dispute over the islands went before the newly formed League of Nations. The latter decided that Finland should retain sovereignty over the province, but that Åland should be made an autonomous territory. One of the important proponents of a diplomatic solution to the case was Nitobe Inazō, who was one of the Under-Secretaries General of the League and the director of the International Bureaux Section, in charge of the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation.[25] The Åland convention of 20 October 1921, signed by Sweden, Finland, Germany, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, Denmark, Poland, Estonia, and Latvia, was the first international agreement achieved by the League.[26] Thus, Finland was obliged to ensure the residents of Åland the right to maintain the Swedish language, as well as their own culture and local traditions. The convention of 1921 established the neutral status of Åland by international treaty, prohibiting the placing of military installations or forces on the islands.[27] Åland's Regional Assembly convened for its first plenary session in Mariehamn on 9 June 1922;[3] today, the day is celebrated as Self-Government Day of Åland.[4]

Åland has its own flag and has issued its own postage stamps since 1984.[28] It runs its own police force, and is an associate member of the Nordic Council.[29] Åland is demilitarised, and the population is exempt from conscription. Although Åland's autonomy preceded the creation of the regions of Finland, the autonomous government of Åland also has responsibility for the functions undertaken by Finland's regional councils. Åland Post provides postal services to the islands, and is a member of the Small European Postal Administration Cooperation. Åland is considered a separate entity for amateur radio purposes and have their own call sign prefix granted by Finland, OH0, OF0 and OG0 (last character is zero).[30]

Homeschooling, which has been effectively banned in Sweden since 2011, is allowed by the Finnish government. Due to the islands' proximity to Sweden and because they are Swedish-speaking, a number of Swedish homeschooling families have moved from the Swedish mainland to Åland, including Jonas Himmelstrand, the chairman of the Swedish association for homeschooling.[31]

The surface of the islands is generally rocky and the soil thin due to glacial stripping at the end of the most recent ice age.[11] The islands also contain many meadows that are home to many different kinds of insects, such as the Glanville fritillary butterfly.

During the Åland Islands dispute, the parties sought support from different maps of the area. On the Swedish map, the most densely populated main island dominated, and many skerries were left out. On the Finnish map, many smaller islands or skerries were, for technical reasons, given a slightly exaggerated size. The Swedish map made the islands appear to be closer to the mainland of Sweden than to Finland; the Finnish map stressed the continuity of the archipelago between the main island and mainland Finland, while a greater gap appeared between the islands and the archipelago on the Swedish side. One consequence is the often repeated number of "over 6,000" skerries that was given authority by the outcome of the arbitration.[citation needed]

The abolition of tax-free sales on ferry boats travelling between destinations within the European Union made Finland demand an exception for Åland on the European Union value-added tax rules. The exception allows for maintained tax-free sales on the ferries between Sweden and Finland (provided they stop at Mariehamn or Långnäs) and at the airport, but has also made Åland a different tax-zone, meaning that tariffs must be levied on goods brought to the islands. Two million people visit Åland every year - but most of them just for a few hours before the ferry returns again, or the passengers change from one ship to another.[44]

AIED is a very rare disease originally reported in a family from Aland islands in the Bothnia sea. Some other cases from the Baltic area and other origins have been reported but the clinical features of these cases overlap with X-linked incomplete congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB2; see this term).

Åland is made up of more than 6,700 islands that form an archipelago in the Baltic Sea between Sweden and Finland. Its inhabitants speak Swedish but are Finnish citizens known as Ålänningar. There are approximately 30,000 residents of Åland.

Åland [1] (Finnish: Ahvenanmaa) is an autonomous area in the Baltic Sea, consisting of one main island and a surrounding archipelago. While legally a part of Finland, in practice the islands run their own affairs and are rather different from the mainland.

The Åland Islands (pronounced "Oh-lahnd") are a group of small islands officially belonging to Finland but awarded a wide degree of autonomy by a League of Nations decision in 1921 that settled a long-running dispute between Sweden and Finland. Still at the time when Åland was under Russian sovereignty, a treaty was concluded between Russia, France and the United Kingdom at the issue of the Crimean War, by virtue of which the islands were demilitarized. Finland assumed the same obligation upon achieving independence. Among other things, Ålanders have their own parliament, publish their own stamps, are exempt from military service, and maintain a special tax status in the European Union. The locals have Finnish passports but with a mention of Åland in their cover. It is good to remember that Ålanders do not consider themselves as Finns but Ålanders. Those who choose to study at university more often move to Sweden, rather than Finland.

The archipelago consists of around 80 inhabited islands plus around 6000 uninhabited islands, islets and rocks. The total population is only 29,800 (2019), 90% of which lives on the main island Åland (also known as Fasta Åland litterally Mainland Åland), which includes the capital Mariehamn.

Ålandstrafiken ferries are free to pedestrians and to motorists between the smaller islands. For pedestrians bus lines 4 and 5 from Mariehamn go respectively to Hummelvik and Långnäs, each of which is a terminal for a route to the Finnish mainland.

A combination of ferry between the islands and a bicycle on the islands themselves is the most popular option. Bicycling in Åland is very popular activity at summertime and there are well developed facilities for bicycles including dedicated cycle paths along many roads and ferries exclusively for bicycles.

The trip to Åland through the eastern archipelago (coming from Finland) is something you will never forget. Choose a route through either the southern or northern archipelago. Bookings can be made for trips to and from an intermediate port. Trips from one destination port to another can only be made if you spend a night on one of the small islands. The archipelago ferries is served by Ålandstrafiken [17].

Most restaurants are in Mariehamn but there is at least some kind of guesthouse in every municipality (but not on every accessible island!!!). There are few fast food outlets in Mariehamn, like Hesburger, but absolutely not anywhere else on the islands. Some restaurants have limited hours of service and some aren't open every day. Always check these in advance, by phone if possible.

Little known outside the Nordic region, the natural beauty and largely unspoilt nature of these islands provide welcome respite from the bustling Nordic cities. Of the thousands of islands and skerries in the archipelago only a handful are inhabited, leaving plenty of space for enjoying the pristine nature.

Discover the archipelago by boat and cycle: Experience Åland's maritime culture by taking a sailing trip or renting a boat yourself to navigate the beautiful, sheltered waters and islands. Rent a bicycle to explore the well-maintained coastal paths and charming villages.

Birdwatching walks: The islands draw bird enthusiasts hoping to catch a glimpse of the many resident and migratory species. Lågskär island and the Kummelskär bird station are among the best spots, while the Ramsholmen Nature Reserve and Getaberget viewpoint are great places for nature walks.

Even with all the advantages the scope of this project seems to provide, Adamczak isn't expecting a "build it and they will come" attitude to be enough. He's considering various ways to promote the courses to disc golfers around the world. Two of these are having an epic opening ceremony designed to produce viral videos and heavily publicizing former disc golf World Champion and prolific course collector Avery Jenkins' planned attempt to play all sixteen courses in one day next Midsummer, the day with the most daylight of the year. While some of the courses are already complete or soon will be, the project is not on track to meet the original announced finish date of the end of July 2020. Adamczak believes the full 16 will be completed by October. Still, he said he's seen many things that make him believe the project will be a success, including lots of interest from disc golf clubs wanting to play their club championships on the islands, longer lines than usual at a café near a course, and native Ålanders traveling around the islands to check out the new courses.We'll have to wait and see if those positive signs portend sizable pay-offs for Åland's investment in disc golf. But if they do, it could become one of the sport's biggest success stories, and one that disc golf promoters across the world could use to help convince community leaders that betting big on disc golf isn't as much of a gamble as it may first appear. 59ce067264

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